local: Most New Zealand politicians (at least in public)
development through youth participation: "Youth participation
isn't difficult ...
postive, healthy lives: The Youth Development Strategy
guiding the Ministry ...
out the local action: Youth councils are one way...
means partnership: Participation depends on citizens wanting
to participate - and ...
for Citizenship Education - empowering citizens: The Ladder
of Citizenship Participation ...
the aspirations of Pacific peoples: The Ministry of Pacific
Island Affairs exists to ...
migrants up to succeed: Experienced senior New Zealand government
officials look forward to the day ...
defines citizenship: National Party leader Bill English says
"we have come up with the notion ...
Centre for Citizenship Education
– empowering citizens
The Ladder of Citizenship Participation
means citizens handle the entire job of planning, policy making and managing
a programme with no intermediaries between it and the source of funds.
Delegated power means citizens hold a clear majority
of seats on committees with delegated power to make decisions. The public
now has the power to assure that programmes are accountable to them.
Partnership means power is redistributed through negotiation
between citizen and power holders, and planning and decision-making responsibilities
Placation might, for example, include co-opting hand
picked “worthy people” onto committees. It allows citizens
to advise or plan, but retains for power holders the right to judge the
legitimacy or feasibility of the advice.
Consultation is a further legitimate step, which can
include attitude surveys, neighbourhood meetings and public enquiries.
Nonetheless, planner Arnstein feels this is still a token ritual.
Informing is a more important first step to legitimate
participation. However, too frequently, the emphasis at this level is
on a one way flow of information, with no channel for feedback.
Manipulation and therapy are both non-participative.
The aim is to cure or educate the participants. The not so tacit implication
is that the proposed plan is best, and the job of participation is to
achieve public support by public relations.
The Centre for Citizenship
Education is a non-government organisation established by Asia Pacific
Research Unit (APRU), which works in cooperation with other promoters
of a stronger civil society. Institutions and individuals interested in
addressing the needs of, for example, youth, the aged, women, people with
disabilities, migrants and indigenous peoples will all have a contribution
to make. The Centre is now being strengthened and expanded under Establishment
Director, Anthony Haas.
Inquiries about further activities, individual or corporate membership
should be addressed to firstname.lastname@example.org
For more on the expansion of our plans and updates, seewww.decisionmaker.co.nz/cce/index.html
The ladder of citizenship
participation is defined by Sherry Arnstein in the Journal of the American
Institute of Planners. Arnstein’s Ladder of Citizen Participation
includes three degrees of citizen empowerment: non-participation, tokenism
and citizen power. The three degrees of citizen empowerment are demonstrated
by the eight distinct (and value laden) approaches to public involvement
presented here as part of the Centre for Citizenship's contribution to
citizen control at the top
of the ladder is empowerment, … too many citizens can only get onto